As the shadows of his convictions fade, Glaucon begins to see the good and understand that philosophy is a profitable, satisfying activity, as well as the way to enlightenment. Radically, Socrates says that anything in youth "assimilates itself to the model whose stamp anyone wishes to give to it" (377b). Socrates says, "Now, the true city is in my opinion the one we just described-a healthy city, as it were. First he will describe the most minimal state imaginable (one where only the most basic needs are met). Interestingly, these bad messages are the same as Glaucon's and Adeimantus' arguments against the usefulness of justice. This view has actually changed my whole perspective on my religious views and has leaded me to search for a new one. Before, education consisted of telling false tales to children so that they would absorb the material and have correct opinions. The third principle of literature is the stories of heroes. Not only does Socrates lead the interlocutors through the educational process, but Plato, by using a dialogue form for his treatise, allows us, the readers, to be educated along with Glaucon and Adeimantus. In order for there to be a just state, there must be a balance between the different types of people, namely; reason dominated, spirit dominated and appetite dominated people. He acknowledges that his proposed regime and its philosopher-kings are implausible and, instead, the real goal is to establish an ordered, just regime within oneself (592). By the conclusion of Book IX, Socrates has moved effectively from the image of justice in a city to the image of justice in private, philosophical men. I… Although music is the most important component in the guardians' education, equilibrium between music and gymnastics is important for the production of moral guardians. . According to Plato, individual justice can be obtained when each individual develops his or her ability to the fullest. First, turns Glaucon onto the good by introducing it in a mysterious, attractive way. Plato on education. Music is used to accompany a poem. There are certain aspects such as censorship and a changing God that I felt a certain way about before I read this book, but now feel differently. Because they know nothing else, the prisoners assume the shadows to be the extent of reality--but what they see and hear is actually only a small segment of the intelligible world. Play must have serious intentions; poetry must only imitate what is good, pointing beyond the petty troubles of men to the eternal pursuit of justice and philosophy, and children must not be allowed to play with dialectics before they are able to do so responsibly for fear they will be corrupted and become lawless (538). Hesiod was a famous Greek poet. This ability to distinguish between good and bad without ever having been directly exposed to the bad is the intended result of the guardians' education. Plato, however, does not see the bearing of children as a problem in the education of women, nor is it a hindrance to their role as guardian. The Guardians will have to be both fierce and gentle. Shouldn’t the Lastly in his discussion of educative music, Socrates addresses the appropriate melody of tales with Glaucon. Those who resolutely hold onto the convictions instilled in them by education will be chosen as guardians and those who rebel against the city's ideology will be rejected (413d-414a). Because a solely gymnastic education causes savagery and a purely musical education causes softness, the two must be balanced. After teaching imagination, Socrates moves onto trust by introducing an education that requires rulers to blindly trust the educative tales they are told. Socrates describes a cave in which humans are chained from birth facing a wall. It is now clear that Socrates himself is down in the cave, somewhat against his will,2 attempting to help the interlocutors turn from the dark of ignorance to the light of knowledge and realize what is. But similar to the escaped prisoner's increasing ability to see what is, as Socrates introduces his sequence of images Glaucon begins to understand what the good is, how it is to be found, and that it is the most desirable virtue. Moreover, Socratic education is not just meant to educate civic rulers--it is meant to educate men to be excellent rulers of themselves. Socrates says. "The same education which makes a man a good guardian will make a woman a good guardian; for their original nature is the same." He says that these poets' tales include bad lies, which further unrealistic images of the gods and heroes (377e). When Socrates describes the good, Glaucon has trouble understanding its complexity, so Socrates takes a step back and uses the sun image to convey his point. Socrates now acknowledges that the nature necessary in philosopher-kings is rare. Instead, knowledge of "the good" must be absolute; Socrates says, "When it comes to good things, no one is satisfied with what is opined to be so but each seeks the things that are" (505d). Guardians are created when the country begins to be too small for it’s inhabitants. At age twenty, gymnastic education will cease and the best students will be chosen to learn an overview of their studies and how they interrelate with each other and the good. After convincing Glaucon that escaping the cave and becoming a philosopher is advantageous, Socrates returns to more practical political matters. Plato says that Guardians would fear God if they thought that God could take on any form in order to deceive them. He leads them toward the light by means of questions and dialectics until they are able to make an account of their knowledge for themselves (511c-d). . I thought about my religion, which is Catholicism, and their view on God holding other forms. The children must learn that God cannot take on different shapes or fly around at night to deceive them such as some stories state. Tales cannot depict fighting among the gods and, further, children must actively be told that citizens have never been angry with one another (378c). He sees it as totally plausible for nurses to take on the role of looking after the child , after an initial period of suckling, in order that the chosen women could continue their duties in the civic arena. Socrates says that those fit for a guardian's education must by nature be "philosophic, spirited, swift, and strong" (376 c). Suitable tales must glorify and encourage moderation; they must display obedience to superiors and temperance in drinking, eating, sex (389e), and love of money and possessions (390e). Like excessive displays of grief, excessive displays of happiness threaten the stoic attitude that is desirable in guardians. Poetry and music is very important for the Guardians. This would tie in with literature because stories are conveyed. Instead of using irony, Socrates uses images to teach the interlocutors. The topic of education first arises in the book when Glaucon opposes the plain lifestyle required in Socrates' city. For the reader, the image of the cave quickly evokes the memory of Socrates' earlier false tales and noble lies, and it is evident that the new education is meant to free the prisoners from their false opinions and convictions, as opposed to chaining them within the cave as did the earlier education. Children must be told that the gods are not the cause of all things, only those which are good and just (380c). Therefore, by eating and drinking moderately and undertaking a simple physical exercise plan from youth, the body will be as fit as is needed. One of Socrates’ final commandments regarding the living arrangements of the guardian class is that children, born from the couplings held during the festivals, shall be considered children of the entire community, with no children knowing the identity of their parents, and vice-versa (Plato 92). Like the divided line, the dialogue has different meanings and purposes on different levels, making it dangerous to believe everything Socrates says. Thus, through a rigorous philosophical education, the city unshackles individuals and leads them out of the cave of ignorance and into the light of knowledge so that they are eventually able to go back into the cave and teach others. In Plato’s theory of the guardian class the state may end up serving the guardians and education may become the primary goal, instead of the well being of the population. Although Socrates found it necessary to drag Glaucon out of the cave and into the light using images, Socrates still prefers that his students do not simply accept the truth, but come to it on their own. By hearing such tales, youths will learn the importance of unity and will be disinclined to fight amongst themselves when they are grown. The philosopher's descent into the cave hearkens back the first line of the book, "I went down to the Piraeus yesterday with Glaucon" (327a). The first part of their education would be on literature. Glaucon wants this illusive, erotic knowledge that Socrates dangles before him, but just as his interest is sparked, Socrates tells him it is too complicated, which arouses Glaucon even more (506e). By presenting them with numerous different points of view, he teaches them to look beyond convention and their long-held convictions, and be open to new, foreign ideas. 504d1) leading toward being. Socrates then spontaneously progresses to the cave analogy in order to explain the process of coming to know the good by means of education. Hades should be praised so that the warriors will not fear death; children should grow up fearing slavery more than death (386c). Socrates then says that the preference for non-imitative poets excludes the most loved and entertaining poets from the city (397e-398a), in favor of more austere and less-pleasing poets. When told that his experience in the cave was not entirely real, he would rebel--and not without reason (515d). Plato feels that certain aspects of theology would have to be censored such as heaven being responsible for everything, both good and evil. He shows Glaucon what would happen if a prisoner was unchained and allowed to leave the cave and see reality. The notion that all private interests be abolished within the guardian class would also leave guardians with little drive to … The Greek word for number is arithmos, and it’s the root of our word arithmetic. Since God is perfection, then he would not need to take on other forms. Behind them, puppet-masters carry figurines which cast shadows on the wall in front of the prisoners. For the most part, each one spends his time in philosophy, but when his turn comes, he drudges in politics and rules for the city's sake, not as though he were doing a thing that is fine, but one that is necessary. Thus, potential philosopher-kings must receive a new form of education that will identify, test, and refine their philosophical natures. The three forms of storytelling are dramatic, tragedy, and comedy. Plato strongly held that in order to achieve this, then literature must be censored. Whereas Glaucon was unwilling to give up the "relishes" which he loves (372c), Adeimantus, Socrates' partner for this part of the discussion, willingly gives up his favorite poets and agrees that poets must be less pleasing. Only modes that express traits a guardian should hold will be left uncensored. He says that good guardians must not be prisoners nor can they be philosophers who selfishly stay outside of the cave. Unable to distinguish between good and bad and, therefore, garner examples of how not to behave from bad tales, children will only use bad examples to justify their own bad behavior (391e). Likening the guardians to philosophical "noble puppies," philosophically educating the guardians by sheltering them, attacking the use of poetry, and telling the guardians that their education and childhood was a dream (414d) are all so implausible that they strike a cord suggesting that the opposite is true. Modes that express bravery, endurance, peacefulness, and success would be considered meaningful. The guardians will consist of fit men who have the natural gifts of being the protectors of the commonwealth. Socrates says of calculation, "It leads the soul powerfully upward and compels it to discuss numbers themselves" (525d). I now understand that educators and parents do not want their easily impressionable children to read books that could teach unjust or morally wrong principles. Socrates says. Once they see the good itself, they must be compelled, each in his turn, to use it as a pattern for ordering city, private men, and themselves for the rest of their lives. Basically it was developed around ones wisdom. This time, Glaucon takes the cue and says, "Just like a sculptor, Socrates, you have produced ruling men who are wholly fair" (540c). Seen as incapable of determining right and wrong for themselves, children were to be guarded from the truth when it was not wholly good. Quick, fiery natures suited to music are usually too unstable for courage in the face of war, and trustworthy, brave natures that excel in war are often slow intellectually (503c-d). Instead, children must look solely to human guardians and the law for guidance. If he tried to look at his new surroundings and the sun directly after leaving the dark cave, he would be blinded and would want to return to the comfort of his familiar past surroundings (515e). Socrates claims, "A young thing can't judge what is hidden sense and what is not; but what he takes into his opinions at that age has a tendency to become hard to eradicate and unchangeable" (378d). I will discuss the guardians as one section since the Rulers are picked after the primary education of the Guardians is completed. He says, "Next, then, make an image of our nature in its education and want of education" (514a). Glaucon reacts as if he has stepped out of the cave for the first time and does not know what to make of his bright surroundings. Plato felt that literature is very influential to individuals. The first account of education, however, is not included in the dialogue without purpose. From this, it seems that education does not make men a certain way, as in the first account. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through the pedagogical method he uses with Glaucon and Adeimantus. The first part of education focused on the content of literature so the second part must focus on the form. Socrates' way of explaining the good is characteristic of his pedagogical method. Physical training must be carefully regulated for the moment the guardian is a child until he is an adult. Unlike the philosopher-kings appearing later in the book, these philosophically natured guardians approve only of that with which they are already familiar and they attack whatever is new. Unlike in the first account when Socrates explicitly says that moderation excludes the possibility of lusty pleasure (402e), now Socrates paints the good as though it were as appealing as sex, making Glaucon willing to do anything to obtain the good. With the ever-present danger of tyranny accompanying military rule, efforts must be made to curb the guardians' natural tendency to lord over the citizens. According to Socrates, virtue is knowledge. Plato regards education as a means to achieve justice, both individual justice and social justice. After Socrates unveils the cave analogy, in retrospect the whole dialogue leading up to the cave appears to be an example of Socrates' pedagogical method. Plato simply states here that dirges, laments, modes of sorrow or softness, and any musical setting implying drunkenness, effeminacy, and inactivity are to be kept from the Guardians in training. Socrates says that careful crafting of tales is important because they are the most effective method of educating guardians' souls. Socrates' rambling teaching style makes sense in light of his idea that students should come to the truth on their own rather than by force (536e). Censorship is needed for children as Plato says. Philosophers cannot stay in the light forever and the cave cannot be eliminated, or else lawlessness would prevail and the city would be destroyed. In conclusion, I feel that Plato’s take on education is well developed. In light of both accounts of education and the dramatic progression of the dialogue, it becomes apparent that the whole Republic is an example of Socratic pedagogy. The third part of education would be music. Beginning by imagining the just city, Socrates initiates the educational progression from large images to small ones. There are two sections of Guardians. This reminds me of the lecture in class about the Evil Genius. They presumably assert that they put into the soul knowledge that isn't in it, as through they were putting sight into blind eyes…but the present argument, on the other hand…indicates that this power is in the soul of each and that the instrument with which each learns--just as an eye is not able to turn toward the light from the dark without the whole body--must be turned around from that which is coming into being together with the whole soul until it is able to endure looking at that which is and the brightest part of that which is (518c). Plato states, “Rhythm and harmony sink deep into the recesses of the soul and take the strongest hold there, bringing that grace of body and mind which is only to be found in one who is brought up in the right way. Socrates next reveals why philosophical education is often resisted and how educational enlightenment is progressive. Although education is not meant to simply bolster convention as in the first account of education, education is also not meant to undermine convention. Socrates says, "Don't use force in training the children in the studies, but rather play. I will use chapters 8 and 9 for my discussion. Good tales must also foster courage, moderation, and justice. Socrates asserts that if someone were to drag him "away from there by force along the rough, steep, upward way, and didn't let him go before he had dragged him out into the light of the sun" (516a), the prisoner would fight and be resentful, and even then, would not be able to see everything at once. The higher section is the Philosophic Rulers and the lower section is the warriors. Socrates says. Plato’s Guardian Class Guardians are put into place to defend morality and rule society because they know the truth and posses the knowledge and wisdom of true forms. Through the telling of carefully crafted tales, mothers and nurses will shape their children's souls (377c). Glaucon protests the unfairness of forcing the liberated philosophers to go back into the cave (519d), but Socrates insists that, although it is unappealing, philosophers will serve the state because they are indebted for their own enlightenment, love knowledge, and accept that the good of the city is more important than their own happiness. Education in music and gymnastics will be compulsory for youths, and their progress and adaptability will be watched and tested throughout their development. Rather, only music that would inspire the brave and music that would inspire wisdom and peaceful action on the part of the Guardians. Education in music (which includes speeches) begins with the telling of tales in the earliest years of childhood because that is when people are most pliable. Socrates suggests that the guardians be controlled through an education designed to make them like "noble puppies" that are fierce with enemies and gentle with familiars (375a). Socrates identifies this subject by describing it as the lowly business of distinguishing the one, the two, and the three—the number. Not only does Socrates (Plato's mouthpiece in the dialogue) posit two differing visions of education (the first is the education of the warrior guardians and the second is the philosopher-kings' education), but he also provides a more subtle account of education through t… His guiding principle is that, “Nothing must be admitted in education which does not conduce to the promotion of virtue. Although Plato's Republic is best known for its definitive defense of justice, it also includes an equally powerful defense of philosophical education. The second part of education would be dramatic recitation. Similar to the content and style of speeches, Socrates allows only moderate and austere melodies. The final part of education would be the physical training of the warrior. In this article we discover what Plato has to say about music and its impact on humans. As an adult you should feel free to read what you want since you have already been shaped. Now that Glaucon eagerly wants to know everything about the good, Socrates tries to explain the divided line (510-511). Rhythm and mode would now have to be censored just as the poem itself had to. Rhythm and harmony touch the soul directly, so if children are surrounded by tales of goodness and never exposed to bad tales, like "noble puppies" they will learn to love what they know (goodness and justice) and hate what they do not know (injustice) (401d-e). From what Socrates says here, it seems as if the natures with which children are born matter less than their education; anyone can be a philosopher with the right training.1 Also, unlike the first education, the purpose of the philosopher-kings' education is to eventually teach children how to distinguish right from wrong by showing them the whole truth. A summary of Part X (Section5) in Plato's The Republic. The answer, Plato believed, was to rely upon the value of a good education. For the Greeks and Plato, excellence is virtue. By not rebuking Glaucon, Socrates allows him to steer the discussion with the hope that he will come to the truth on his own rather than by force. 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